For the remainder of his pontificate, Sixtus turned to temporal issues and dynastic considerations. [4] His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.[5]. It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. Sixtus continued a dispute with King Louis XI of France, who upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which held that papal decrees needed royal assent before they could be promulgated in France. fifteenth century, the location of the Pope’s Roman residence had moved from the Lateran Palace to the Vatican. [13] The English churchman and Protestant polemicist John Bale, writing a century later, attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the "Cardinal of Santa Lucia". The conspirators had included Pope Sixtus IV in their plot as he had an ongoing, years-long rivalry wit… Among the painters Lorenzo sponsored was Bottecilli. His beneficiaries were members of his own family, whom he greatly enriched and who involved him in messy disputes, perhaps the worst of which was a conspiracy against Lorenzo (the Magnificent) de’ Medici. These outstanding achievements, however, were accomplished with heavy taxation and simony. All of that was done to facilitate the integration of the Vatican Hill and Borgo with the heart of Old Rome. An assassination attempt on Pope Sixtus IV led to the excommunication of the House of Medici from the Catholic Church and the declaration of holy war on the city of Florence in 1478. Sixtus IV soon abandoned universal interests, concentrating on Italian politics and revealing his confirmed nepotism. [6] Some fruitless attempts were made towards unification with the Greek Church. A History of Uppsala University: 1477-1977. Sixtus IV became ill on 8 August 1484; this illness worsened on 10 August while the pope was attending an event in Rome. The archbishop of Uppsala was also named as the university's Chancellor, and was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members. "Pope Sixtus IV." Above all, he was a founder or restorer of important institutions and a patron of arts and letters. Almqvist & Wiksell International (1976), Perie, The Triple Crown, Spring 1935 p.26, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, Butler, Richard Urban. As Pope, he issued a papal bull allowing local bishops to give the bodies of executed criminals and unidentified corpses to physicians and artists for dissection. In 1472, under Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, he sent a fleet that participated in the landing at the important Muslim stronghold of Smyrna, but a new expedition in 1473 failed. In 1410, for example, Baldassare Cossa borrowed 10,000fl. [3] For refusing to desist from the very hostilities that he himself had instigated and for being a dangerous rival to Della Rovere dynastic ambitions in the Marche, Sixtus placed Venice under interdict in 1483. They were one of the first banks to implement double-entry bookkeeping and — thanks to the size of their banking network — they could issue credit across the continent at a time when money lending was a sin. He finally absolved Lorenzo and removed the interdict. Sixtus founded the Spanish Inquisition through the bull Exigit sincerae devotionis affectus (1478), and he annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was chosen minister general of his order in 1464. Saint Pius Pius Quintus: Michele Ghislieri For those watching our recommended Medici documentary, Part II covers Lorenzo’s story. Medici (TV Series 2016–2019) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded. During his pontificate Rome was transformed from a medieval to a Renaissance city. Sixtus IV sought to strengthen his position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends. [18] Arguably the "ideology of conquest" expounded in those texts became the means by which commerce and conversion were facilitated.[19]. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Morris, Roderick Conway. 25 Jul. Lorenzo De’ Medici had gotten on the wrong side of the Pope one too many times – he had taken a dislike to the Pope’s choice for Archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviato, and had also taken umbridge to the fact that Girolamo Riario, Pope Sixtus’ nephew, had been given Imola in the aim of setting up a brand new papal state. Internet Archive, Ebooks and Texts. Maria del Popolo and Sta. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. "Variations of Popery", Samuel Edgar D.D. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. …Spanish Inquisition, established by Pope. However, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and his role passed to Giuliano Della Rovere. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, established a number of provisions. The angered Italian princes allied to force Sixtus IV to make peace to his great annoyance. Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and a main organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria. A pope against any form of real reform could do the Counter-Reformation much harm. The overall program of the panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references and their relative arrangement are compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. That was part of a broader scheme of urbanization carried out under Sixtus IV, who swept the long-established markets from the Campidoglio in 1477 and decreed in a bull of 1480 the widening of streets and the first post-Roman paving, the removal of porticoes and other post-classical impediments to free public passage. John Lynch (The Fall) has replaced Raoul Bova in the role of Pope Sixtus IV, while Rose Williams (Reign) has taken over the character of Caterina Sforza (previously played by Nicole Brugnoli). On April 26, 1478, during mass at Florence cathedral, the agents of Girolamo Riario, Sixtus IV’s nephew, wounded Lorenzo and killed his brother, Giuliano, in a plot to overthrow the Medici. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. Sixtus IV, original name Francesco della Rovere, (born July 21, 1414, Cella Ligure, near Savona, Republic of Genoa—died Aug. 12, 1484, Rome), pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. Omissions? Apart from meddling in feuds between the great Roman families, Sixtus IV committed himself rather scandalously to Venice’s aggression against the duchy of Ferrara, which he incited the Venetians to attack (1482); their combined assault was opposed by Milan, Florence, and Naples. A political family drama set in Florence in the early fifteenth century. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Sixtus IV. A marble tombstone marks the site. Cosimo de’ Medici and Pope Sixtus IV… adoring the Infant Saviour. [3], In 1464, Della Rovere was elected Minister General of the Franciscan order at the age of 50. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. Before he became pope, he had spent time at the very liberal and cosmopolitan University of Padua, which maintained considerable independence from the Church and had a very international character. He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. In his territorial aggrandizement of the Papal States, his niece's son Cardinal Raffaele Riario, for whom the Palazzo della Cancelleria was constructed, was suspected of colluding in the failed Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 to assassinate both Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano and replace them in Florence with Sixtus IV's other nephew, Girolamo Riario. At the beginning of his papacy, in 1471, Sixtus had donated several historically important Roman sculptures that founded a papal collection of art, which would eventually develop into the collections of the Capitoline Museums. He was made cardinal in 1467 by Pope Paul II, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471. In November 1476, Isabel and Fernando ordered an investigation into rights of conquest in the Canary Islands, and in the spring of 1478, they sent Juan Rejon with sixty soldiers and thirty cavalry to the Grand Canary, where the natives retreated inland. For the archbishop, see, Bishops consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV as principal consecrator, On his premature death (1501), Giovanni entrusted his son, Raiswell, p. 469 see also "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", p. 281, Sued-Badillo (2007), see also O'Callaghan, p. 287-310, Sten Lindroth. A pope who wanted reform could push the Counter-Reformation forward. The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed this life-may God forgive him!' [23] [17], As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. L orenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492) was the grandson of prestigious Cosimo de’ Medici, who we covered in yesterday’s post.Lorenzo, in most respects, followed the Medici-patron formula during his time and should be highly regarded. Maria della Pace); the Sistine Chapel is his principal monument. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. Federico da Montefeltro, the popular Duke of Urbino, was the author of the secret letter. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. This included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law (Canon Law and Roman law), medicine, and philosophy, and to award the bachelor's, master's, licentiate, and doctoral degrees. Cosimo de’ Medici of Florence and Pope Sixtus IV of Rome are examples of patrons who used “the arts as an instrument of power”. Nepotism, too, was widespread. Lorenzo’s father, Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici, was equally at the centre of Florentine life, chiefly as an art patron and collector, like his father Cosimo de’ Medici, who was one of the wealthiest men in Europe and the first member of the Medici family to combine running the Medici Bank with leading the Republic of Florence.Lorenzo’s mother, Lucrezia Tornabuoni, was a writer of sonnets and a friend to poets and philosophers of the Medi… The Medici weren't the only famous family of the Italian Renaisssance. Its contents reveal that he conspired to overthrow the Medicis’ reign and that his co-conspirators included Pope Sixtus IV, the Pope’s nephew Gerolamo Riario, Archbishop Salviati, and … His efforts in 1474 and 1476 to reunite the Russian Church with Rome and to gain Russian support against the Turks were unsuccessful.