[206]:8 The state recorded 8.93% growth in enterprises from 1998 to 2005, higher than the national rate of 4.80%. The average elevation of the city is 16 ft above sea level. Chitra, M.G. The forests are spread over three ranges: the Kulathupuzha range in the north, Palode range in the middle, and the Paruthipalli range in the south. [548] The Indian Hockey team captain P. R. Shreejesh, ace goalkeeper hails from Kerala. He makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes (followed to this day), and the matrilineal system of succession. [316] [246][247] [439] Though the cost of education is generally considered low in Kerala,[441] according to the 61st round of the National Sample Survey (2004–2005), per capita spending on education by the rural households was reported to be ₹41 (57¢ US) for Kerala, more than twice the national average. [56]:110 Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala's terrain. In 2006, around 22% of the total Indian marine fishery yield was from Kerala. This is believed to be an underestimate as private hospitals may not be reporting their figures. The total growth of the farm sector has recorded a 4.39% increase in 2012–13, over a paltry 1.3% growth in the previous fiscal year. It is surrounded by the Western Ghats mountain range on the West and North, with reserve forests and the (Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve) on the northern side. The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Kerala as Celobotra. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. Thiruvananthapuram airport shares civilian facilities with the Southern Air Command of the Indian Air Force. They united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. [516] Popular snacks include banana chips, yam crisps, tapioca chips, Achappam, Unni appam and kuzhalappam. [56]:110 41 of Kerala's west-flowing rivers,[140] and 3 of its east-flowing ones originate in this region. [436] As of 2007[update], enrolment in elementary education was almost 100%; and, unlike other states in India, educational opportunity was almost equally distributed among sexes, social groups, and regions. Daily scheduled service has increased from 1,200,000 kilometres (750,000 mi) to 1,422,546 kilometres (883,929 mi),[294] using 6,241 buses on 6,389 routes. Kerala's economy depends significantly on emigrants working in foreign countries, mainly in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and the remittances annually contribute more than a fifth of GSDP. Chithra Thirunnal decided to set up a public road transportation system in 1937. [455] In Malayalam literature, elephants are referred to as the "sons of the sahya". Physical features. The districts which serve as administrative regions for taxation purposes are further subdivided into 27 revenue subdivisions and 77 taluks, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records. The annual yield of the sector was estimated as 608,000 tons in 2003–04. [citation needed], The climate of Thiruvananthapuram district is generally hot tropical. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, K… [237] Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, NeST and Suntec have offices in the state. [55][56]:79 Kerala's spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. Malayalam literature starts from the late medieval period and includes such notable writers as the 14th-century Niranam poets (Madhava Panikkar, Sankara Panikkar and Rama Panikkar),[494][495] and the 17th-century poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, whose works mark the dawn of both the modern Malayalam language and its poetry. [245], The Kerala Infrastructure Investment Fund Board is a government owned financial institution in the state to mobilize funds for infrastructure development from outside the state revenue, aiming at overall infrastructure development of the state. [525] Dozens of newspapers are published in Kerala, in nine major languages,[526] but principally Malayalam and English. [223] Kerala supplies 60% of the total global produce of white coir fibre. The physical features of the Patkai mountains are conical peaks, steep slopes and deep valleys. [93] Finally, the Kulasekhara dynasty was subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of Later Pandyas and Later Cholas. There is a significant Tamil population in Palakkad and Idukki districts. [303], Kochi Metro is the metro rail system in the city of Kochi. [429][430][431][432][433] Following the recommendations of the Wood's despatch of 1854, the princely states of Travancore and Cochin launched mass education drives mainly based on castes and communities, and introduced a system of grant-in-aid to attract more private initiatives. Apart from introducing the caste system, they also changed the socio-economic life of the people by commissioning new religious centres. Though the contribution of the agricultural sector to the state economy was on the decline in 2012–13, through the strength of the allied livestock sector, it has picked up from 7.03% (2011–12) to 7.2%. [229] Unemployment in 2007 was estimated at 9.4%;[230] chronic issues are underemployment, low employability of youth, and a low female labour participation rate of only 13.5%,[231]:5, 13 as was the practice of Nokku kooli, "wages for looking on". It covers small area of 32 sq . Our country has all the features that one expects from a country. New York: The Feminist Press, 1997. In Kerala, highways are 45 metres (148 feet) wide. (60 metres (197 ft)) Agastya Mala, which has an elevation of 1,868 metres (6,129 ft) is only about 60 km from the city. When the procession visits homes around the temple, people will usually present rice, coconuts, and other offerings to it. [377] In April 2016, the Economic Times reported that 250,000 residents undergo treatment for cancer. India's first coir factory was set up in Alleppey in 1859–60. In 2012, National Geographic's Traveller magazine named Kerala as one of the "ten paradises of the world"[550][551] and "50 must see destinations of a lifetime". [168]:26, 46, 52 The mean daily temperature ranges from 19.8 °C to 36.7 °C. More than 10,000 festivals are celebrated in the state annually and some animal lovers have sometimes raised concerns regarding the overwork of domesticated elephants during them. [497][498][499] The "triumvirate of poets" (Kavithrayam): Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, are recognised for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics, and towards a more lyrical mode. In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts, including series expansion for trigonometric functions. [160] The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats,[161] making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains. Kerala is a region of great natural beauty. 1987 pp. [106], The Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who during the conflicts between the Kozhikode and the Kochi, gained control of the trade. The second rainy season is the Northeast monsoon. [350] Outbreaks of water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis, and typhoid among the more than 50% of people who rely on 3 million water wells is an issue worsened by the lack of sewers. [167] Some of Kerala's drier lowland regions average only 1,250 mm (49 in); the mountains of the eastern Idukki district receive more than 5,000 mm (197 in) of orographic precipitation: the highest in the state. Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. These include five classical dance forms: Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Koodiyattom, Thullal and Krishnanattam, which originated and developed in the temple theatres during the classical period under the patronage of royal houses. [361] Kerala has the lowest proportion of homeless people in rural India – 0.04%,[362] and the state is attempting to reach the goal of becoming the first "Zero Homeless State", in addition to its acclaimed "Zero landless project", with private organisations and the expatriate Malayali community funding projects for building homes for the homeless. As of 2014[update], Infopark generates one-third of total IT Revenues of the state[238][239] with key offices of IT majors like Tata Consultancy Services, Cognizant, Wipro, UST Global, IBS Software Services etc. The forests in the tail end of Western Ghats form the most diverse and unknown ecosystem in Peninsular India.[6]. [141][142] The Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near Palakkad; hence also known Palghat, where the Palakkad Gap breaks. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluk of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) in South Canara (Tulunad) which was a part of Madras State. [first published in 2002; 3rd edn.]. The southernmost extremity, Parassala, is just 54 kilometres (34 mi) away from the southern peninsular tip of India, Cape Comorin (Kanya Kumari). [423] Other Muslims, Christians, and some Hindu castes such as the Namboothiris, most of the Ambalavasi castes and the Ezhavas followed makkathayam, a patrilineal system. However, the dominance of Middle East traders was challenged in the European Age of Discovery. [412], Judaism reached Kerala in the 10th century BCE during the time of King Solomon. The state has numerous backwaters, which are used for commercial inland navigation. Kerala's birds include the Malabar trogon, the great hornbill, Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern hill myna. The city is located at .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}8°30′N 76°54′E / 8.5°N 76.9°E / 8.5; 76.9 on the west coast, near the southern tip of mainland India. This unique geography of Kerala provides many hills, high mountains and valleys, dense forests along with the beautiful water bodies’ backwaters, lakes and beaches. 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